1. which are the various Number System in use?
Decimal Numbers (having a base of 10)
Octal Number (having a base of 8)
Hexadecimal Number System (having a base of 16)
Binary Number System (having a base of 2)
2. How are fractions represented and what are its parts?
In this case the exponent value(+05) indicates that the actual position of the decimal point is five positions to the right of the indicated decimal point in the fraction.
3. How negative number represented in the Computer?
4. How is number represented as an integer in the commputer?
i. Signed-magnitude representation
ii. Signed- 1’s Complement representation
iii. Signed 2’s Complement representation
5. How’s arithmetic addition done?
6. How is arithmetic subtraction done ?
7. When an overflow occurs?
8. What is Gray code?
9. Which type of fields are found in the Instruction Format?
10.what are Operands?
11. What are three-addressed instruction?
12. What are two-address instructions?
13.What are one-address instruction?
14.What does zero-address instruction do?
15. what are RISC instructions?
17.What do you understand by addressing mode?
I. to give programming versatility to the user by providing such facilities as pointers to memory, Counters for loop control, indexing of data, and
Ii. program relocation and
iIi. to reduce the number of bits in the addressing field of the operation.
18.describe the various phases of instruction execution.
I. Fetch the instruction from memory
Ii. decode instruction
Iii. execute the instruction
19.what are implied modes?
20. what is immediate mode?
21. what are register modes?
22.What is register indirect mode?
23. what is Direct Access mode?
24. what is indirect access mode?
25. what is relative address mode?
26. what is indexed addressing mode?
27. What is register addressing mode?
28.What is timing cycle?
1. What is central Processing Unit and what are its main parts?
I. Primary Storage
Ii. Arithmetic Logic Unit
Iii. Control Unit
IV. Output Unit
2.Which purpose does the primary storage unit perform?
- holding data in its memory till it is required to be processed
- holding the results of the processed data
- holding program instructions which are required for processing.
3. what does arithmetic and logic unit do?
4. What is control unit?
5.What’s in an output unit?
6.What is General register organisation?
7.what is stack organisation?
The last tray placed on top of that is the first to be taken off. The stack in digital computers is essentially a memory unit with an address register that can count only ( after an initial value is loaded into it).
8.What is Evolution of Arithmetic Expressions method?
9. What is CISC architecture?
10. Describe the various characteristics of CISC architecture.
11.Describe the various characteristics of RISC processor.
I. Relatively few instructions;
Ii. Relatively few addressing modes
Iii. Memory access limited to LOAD and STORE
Iv. All operations done within the registers of the CPU
V. Fixed-length, easily decoded instruction format
Vi. Single-cycle instruction execution
Vii. Hardwired rather than microprogrammed control
12. What is microprogram sequencer?
13. What is pipeline processing?
14.What is array processor?
15. What is Attached array processor?
16.What is SIMD Array Processor?
1. How computers perform arithmetic operations using integers?
2. what logic is applied when using arithmetic or subtraction arithmetic?
3. How is addition or subtraction done using signed two’s complement?
Thus +33 is represented as 00100001 and -33 is as 11011111. Note that 11011111 is the 2’s complement of 11011111, and vice versa. The addition of two numbers in signed 2’s complement form consists of adding the numbers with the sign bits treated the same as the other bits of the number. A carry-out of the sign-bit position is discarded.
4. how does hardware handle this signed magnitude data?
First,instead of providing registers to store and add simultaneously as many binary numbers as there are bits in the multiplier,it is convenient provided an adder for the summation of only two binary numbers and successfully accumulate the partial products in a register.Second,instead of listing the multiplicand to the left, the partial product is shifted to the right, which results in leaving the partial product and the multiplicand in the required relative positions.
Third, when the corresponding bit of the multiplier is 0, there is no need to add all 0’s to the partial product since it will not alter its value.
5.What is Booth algorithm multiplication method?
6. what is array multiplier?
7. how is division handled in processing?
8. how is divide overflow handled?
9. what is the principle of BCD adder?
10.What is the principle of BCD subtraction?
A straight subtraction of two decimal numbers will require a subtractor circuit that will be somewhat different from a BCD adder. It is more economical to perform the subtraction by taking the 9’s or 10’s complement of the subtrahend and adding it to the minuend. Since, the BCD is not a self-complementing code, the 9’s complement can’t be obtained by complementing each bit in the code. It must be formed by a circuit that subtracts each BCD digit from 9.
1.Describe memory hierarchy.
2. what is cache?
3. what is the main memory of computer system?
4. what is a bootstrap loader?
5. what is memory address map?
6. which memory is connected to CPU?
7. what kind of auxiliary memory used?
8. what is a magnetic disk?
9. what is floppy disk drive?
10. what is a Magnetic tape?
11. what is associative memory?
12. how is writing operation done?
13. what is mapping?
I. Associative Mapping
ii .Direct Mapping and
Iii. Set -associative Mapping
14. what is virtual memory?
15. what is inter-leaved memory?
1. What are input and output devices are used for?
2. what are ASCII alphanumeric characters?
3. Describe the various forms of differences between computer and peripheral communications.
4. which three methods are used by computer buses to communicate with memory and I/O.
i. Use two separate buses, one for memory and the other for I/O; and
ii. Use one common bus for both memory and I/O but have separate control lines for each ; and
iii. Use one Common bus for memory and I/O with common control lines.
5. how is data transfer handled?
i. Programmed I/O
ii. Interrupt-Initiated I/O
iii. Direct Memory Access
6. what is programmed I/O?
7. what is direct memory access?
8. what is Daisy Chain priority?
9. how does CPU initialise the DMA?
10. what is parallel priority interrupt?
11. what is priority encoder?
12. what is input output processor?